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Rootstocks

Fruit trees are propagated onto rootstocks. The rootstock is the most important factor in determining the vigour and eventual size of the tree. The choice of rootstock is therefore very important as it will determine the suitability of the tree for the position and the form in which you intend to grow it. Please find below a list of rootstocks and their characteristics.
Apple:  M27  (Very dwarfing )
Requirements Good soil conditions. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Permanent staking required. Water in dry conditions.
Mature height 4-6ft (1.2-1.8m)
Spread 5ft (1.5m)
Planting distance 4-5 ft (1.2-1.5m) apart, 6ft (1.8m) between rows
Mature yield 10-15lb (4.5-7kg)
Bearing age 2 years
Suitable forms Dwarf pyramid, centre leader, stepover

Apple:  M9  (Dwarfing )
Requirements Good soil conditions. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Permanent staking required. Water in dry conditions.
Mature height 6-8ft (1.8-2.4m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance 8-10ft (2.4-3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield 25-50lb (11-23kg)
Bearing age 2/3 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon

Apple:  M26  (Semi-dwarfing )
Requirements Can be grown in all reasonable soil conditions including grass orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 8-12ft (2.4-3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield 30-80lb (13.5-36kg)
Bearing age 2/3 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon, minaret, espalier, container

Apple:  MM106  (Semi-vigorous )
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-13ft (3-4m)
Spread 13ft (4m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield 50-100lb (23-56kg)
Bearing age 3/4 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, cordon, espalier, container

Apple:  MM111  (Vigorous )
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and poor soils. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height 13-15ft (4-4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6m) between rows
Mature yield 100-400lb (45-180kg)
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard, half standard, large espalier

Apple:  M25  (Very vigorous )
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and poor soils. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height Over15ft (4.5m)
Spread 20ft (6m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield 200-400lb (90-180kg)
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms Standard


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